Distance Learning: Can Telesupervision Facilitate GP Educator Supervision?

Purnima Sharma, Claire Parkin

Abstract


Abstract

Distance learning involving both time-synchronous (telephone) and asynchronous media (email, podcasts) has been used successfully in education and supervision of allied medical specialties over the years. However the poor social presence afforded by such electronic interfaces has, until recently, limited the application of distance learning to post- graduate medical education. High-quality real-time audio-visual communication software is now widely available and being used increasingly for social communication by more and more people. Could this technology be used to facilitate the educational development of remote learners? This paper offers the experience of senior GP Educators using remote, time-synchronous, audio- visual technology (namely Skype) to provide distance supervision to a peer educator.


Keywords


General Practice, Primary Care, Education, Supervision, Telesupervision

Full Text:

PDF

References


Argyle, M. (1972) ‘Non-verbal communication in human social interaction’, Non-verbal Communication, p. xiii, 443.

Baird, B. (2016) Understanding pressures in general practice, The King’s Fund. Available at: https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/pressures-in-general-practice (Accessed: 2 April 2017).

Bandura, A. (1986) Social foundations of thought and action : a social cognitive theory / Albert Bandura. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.

Branch, W. T. and Paranjape, A. (2002) ‘Feedback and reflection: teaching methods for clinical settings.’, Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 77(12 Pt 1), pp. 1185–1188. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200212000-00005.

Brandoff, R. and Lombardi, R. (2012) ‘Miles Apart: Two Art Therapists’ Experience of Distance Supervision’, Art Therapy, 29(2), pp. 93–96. doi: 10.1080/07421656.2012.683729.

Brzycki, D. and Dudt, K. (2005) ‘Overcoming Barriers to Technology Use in Teacher Preparation Programs’, Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), pp. 619–641.

Burgess, A. and Mellis, C. (2015) ‘Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance.’, Advances in medical education and practice, 6, pp. 373–381. doi: 10.2147/AMEP.S77890.

Carlin, C. H., Boarman, K., Carlin, E. and Inselmann, K. (2013) ‘The Use of E-supervision to Support Speech-Language Pathology Graduate Students during Student Teaching Practica.’, International journal of telerehabilitation, 5(2), pp. 21–31. doi: 10.5195/ijt.2013.6128.

Dudding, C. C. (2008) ‘Digital Videoconferencing: Applications Across the Disciplines’, Communication Disorders Quarterly, 30(3), pp. 178–182. doi: 10.1177/1525740108327449.

Dudding, C. C. and Justice, L. M. (2004) ‘An E-Supervision Model: Videoconferencing as a Clinical Training Tool’, Communication Disorders Quarterly, 25(3), pp. 145–151. doi: 10.1177/15257401040250030501.

Facetime (2017) www.apple.com/mac/facetime (Accessed 17th June 2017).

Floridi, L. (2008) The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Wiley: Blackwell Philosophy Guides. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=a37OrM9IUagC.

Flory, J. and Emanuel, E. (2004) ‘Interventions to improve research participants’ understanding in informed consent for research: a systematic review’, JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 292(13), pp. 1593–1601. doi: 10.1001/jama.292.13.1593.

GMC (2009) 'Confidentiality: disclosing information for education and training purposes', General Medical Council. Available at: http://www.gmc-uk.org/Confidentiality_disclosing_info_for_education.pdf_58821264.pdf (Accessed: 23 March 2017).

Gunawardena, C. N. (1995) ‘Social Presence Theory and Implications for Interaction and Collaborative Learning in Computer Conferences’, International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2), pp. 147–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01694.x.

Haliburn, J. (2013) ‘Advances in Clinical Supervision Innovation and Practice The New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry Leading provider of continuing professional education in mental health in Australia A selection of papers presented at the Advances in’, in Clinical Supervision Conference. Sydney, Australia, pp. 4–6. Available at: http://www.nswiop.nsw.edu.au/conference/resources/monograph.pdf (Accessed: 2 April 2017).

Hall, E. (1969) The Hidden Dimension : man’s use of space in public and in private. USA: Anchor Books.

Hawkins, P. and Shohet, R. (2012) Supervision In The Helping Professions. Open University Press (Open University Press). Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=9z7EM9BtpGQC.

Hewson, M. G. and Little, M. L. (1998) ‘Giving Feedback in Medical Education ’, Journal of General Internal Medicine. Blackwell Science, Inc., 13(2), pp. 111–116. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00027.x.

Markus, M. L. (1987) ‘Toward a “Critical Mass” Theory of Interactive Media: Universal Access, Interdependence and Diffusion’, Communication Research, pp. 491–511. doi: 10.1177/009365087014005003.

McQueen, S. A., Petrisor, B., Bhandari, M., Fahim, C., McKinnon, V. and Sonnadara, R. R. (2016) ‘Examining the barriers to meaningful assessment and feedback in medical training’, The American Journal of Surgery, 211(2), pp. 464–475. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.10.002.

Miller, G. E. (1990) ‘The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance’, Academic Medicine, 65(9), pp. S63-7. doi: 10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045.

Muilenburg, L. Y. and Berge, Z. L. (2005) ‘Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study’, Distance Education, 26(1), pp. 29–48. doi: 10.1080/01587910500081269.

RCGP (2014) 'Guidance for deaneries/ LETBs on the standards for GP speciality training', COGPED. Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=gp+educator+feedbacl&* (Accessed: 1 April 2017).

Reason, P. and Bradbury, H. (2001) 'Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice', SAGE Publications. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=v5TQfaZqZxEC.

Rimmer, A. (2015) ‘Why don’t we train more doctors than we need?’, British Medical Journal, p. 3. Available at: http://careers.bmj.com/careers/advice/Why_don’t_we_train_more_doctors_than_we_need%3F.

Roberts, A., Marshall, L. and Charlesworth, A. (2012) ‘A decade of austerity?’ Available at: https://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/files/2017-01/decade-of-austerity-summary-web-final.pdf (Accessed: 19 March 2017).

Rogers, P. L. (2000) ‘Barriers to Adopting Emerging Technologies in Education’, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22(4), pp. 455–472. doi: 10.2190/4UJE-B6VW-A30N-MCE5.

Ruiz, J. G., Mintzer, M. J. and Leipzig, R. M. (2006) ‘The Impact of E-Learning in Medical Education’, Academic Medicine, 81(3). Available at: http://journals.lww.com/academicmedicine/Fulltext/2006/03000/The_Impact_of_E_Learning_in_Medical_Education.2.aspx.

Skype (2017). Available at: https://www.skype.com/en/ (Accessed: 2 June 2017).

Sneddon, A. and MacVicar, R. (2016) ‘Annual trainer peer-review: impact on educational practice and sense of community’, Education for Primary Care. Taylor & Francis, 27, pp. 114–120. doi: 10.1080/14739879.2016.1147136.

Super Tintin (2017). Available at: http://www.supertintin.com/ (Accessed: 2 June 2017).

The Kings Fund (2013) 'Telecare and telehealth', The King’s Fund, Telecare and Telehealth. Available at: http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/topics/telecare-and-telehealth.

Tong, S. T. and Walther, J. B. (2015) ‘The Confirmation and Disconfirmation of Expectancies in Computer- Mediated Communication’, Communication Research, 42(2), pp. 186–212. doi: 10.1177/0093650212466257.

Vinegr, Dick (2017) 'The rise and fall of telehealth in 2013', The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/healthcare-network/2013/dec/03/nhs-telehealth-rise-and-fall (Accessed: 17 June 2017).

Wright, J. and Griffiths, F. (2010) ‘Reflective practice at a distance: using technology in counselling supervision’, Reflective Practice, 11(5), pp. 693–703. doi: 10.1080/14623943.2010.516986.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Advanced Journal of Professional Practice